Learning to be a Biblical Scribe: Examples from the Letter Writing Genre

William M. Schniedewind

Resumo


The paper illustrates how scribal education shaped and influenced biblical
literature. It discusses how educational curriculum can be reconstructed from
Hebrew inscriptions and comparative examples in cuneiform literature. The
Hebrew educational curriculum was adapted from cuneiform models in the 12th
century BCE. These models were known in Canaan, and then used by early
alphabetic scribes. The best repository of ancient Hebrew scribal practice comes
from the desert fortress of Kuntillet ʿAjrud where all the categories of elementary
scribal education are known. Perhaps the most important of these was letter
writing, which was a basic part of a scribe’s everyday duties. Not surprisingly, letter
writing was also one of the foundations of scribal education, and it was adapted
and used for writing biblical literature in ways both mundane and profound. This
included both the structuring of biblical narrative and the genre of writing
prophets.


Palavras-chave


Scribes. Education. Letters Prophecy. Biblical narrative.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


AHITUV, S.; ESHEL E.; MESHEL, Z. The Inscriptions. In: MESHEL, Z. Kuntillet 'Ajrud

(Horvat Teman): An 8th Century BCE Religious Site on Judah's Sinai Border. Jerusalem:

Israel Exploration Society, 2012. p. 73-142.

BEIT-ARIEH, I.; CRESSON, B. An Edomite Ostracon from Ḫorvat ʿUza. Tel Aviv, Tel

Aviv, v. 12, n. 9, p. 7–98, 1985.

DIETRICH, M.; LORETZ, O.; SANMARTIN, J. Keilschrift Texte aus Ugarit (KTU). English

translation: The Cuneiform Alphabetic Texts (CAT) from Ugarit, Ras Ibn Hani and Other

Places. Münster, Germany: Ugarit-Verlag, 1995.

DIJKSTRA, M. Prophecy by Letter (Jeremiah XXIX 24-32). Vetus Testamentun, Leiden,

Netherlands, v. 33, p. 319-322, 1983.

GREENE, J. The Role of the Messenger and Message in the Ancient Near East. Atlanta:

Scholars Press, 1989.

HALLO, W. W.; YOUNGER, K. L. (eds.) Context of Scripture: Canonical Composition

from the Biblical World. Leiden: Brill, 2003.

HARING, B. Halaḥam on an Ostracon of the Early New Kingdom? Journal of Near

Eastern Studies, n. 74, p. 189–95, 2015.

HAWLEY, R. Studies on Ugaritic epistolography. 2003. 824 p. Dissertation

(Humanities and Social Sciences) — University of Chicago, Chicago, 2003.

JACOBSEN, T. The Harps That Once: Sumerian Poetry in Translation. New Haven: Yale

University Press, 1987. p. 275–319.

JIRKU, A. Kana’anäische Psalmenfragmente in der vorisraelitischen Zeit Palästinas

und Syriens . Journal of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, v. 52, p. 108–120, 1933.

KOEHLER, L.; BAUMGARTNER W. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old

Testament (HALOT). Leiden/New York/Köln: E. J. Brill, 1994-2000.

KÖHLER, L. Deuterojesaja (Jesaja 40–55) stilkritisch untersucht. BZAW, 37; Giessen:

Töpelmann, 1923.

LICHTHEIM, M. The Report of Wenamun. In: LICHTHEIM, M. The ancient Egypt

literature. The new kingdom. V. 1. Berkeley and Los Angeles/London: University of

California Press, 1976. p. 224-229.

MOWINCKEL, S. The Spirit’ and the ‘Word’ in the Pre-exilic Reforming Prophets.

Journal of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, v. 53, p. 199–227, 1934.

ORNAN, T. Sketches and Final Works of Art: The Drawings and Wall Paintings of

Kuntillet ʿAjrud, Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, v. 43, p. 3-26, 2015.

PARDEE, D. Handbook of Ancient Hebrew Letters: A Study Edition. Chico: Scholars

Press, 1982.

PARDEE, D. Letters from Tel Arad. Ugarit Forschungen, Kevelaer, Germany, v. 10, p.

–336, 1978.

ROSS, J. The Prophet as Yahweh’s Messenger. In: ANDERSON, B.; HARRELSON, W.

(eds.) Israel’s Prophetic Heritage: Essays in Honor of James Muilenberg. New York:

Harper, 1962.

SCHNIEDEWIND, W. M. The Finger of the Scribe: How Scribes Learned to Write the

Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

SCHNIEDEWIND, W. M. How the Bible Became a Book: The Textualization of Ancient

Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. (translated into Portuguese as

Como a Bíblia tornou-se um livro. A textualização no Antigo Israel. São Paulo:

Loyola, 2011).

SCHNIEDEWIND, W. M. Scripturalization in Ancient Judah. In: SCHMIDT, B. (ed)

Contextualizing Israel’s Sacred Writings: Ancient Literacy, Orality, and Literary

Production. Atlanta: SBL, 2015. p. 305-322.

SCHWIDERSKI, D. Handbuch des nordwestsemitischen Briefformulars: Ein Beitrag

zur Echtheitsfrage des aramäischen Briefe des Esrabuches. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift

für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft (BZAW), Berlin, v. 295, p. 323–327, 2000.

SHEVEKA, A. A Trace of the Tradition of Diplomatic Correspondence in Royal

Psalms, Journal of Semitic Studies, Oxford, v. 50, p. 297–320, 2005.

SHISHA-HALEVY, A. An Early Northwest-Semitic Text in the Egyptian Hieratic Script.

Orientalia, n. 47, p. 145-162, 1978.

STEINER, R. Northwest Semitic Incantations in an Egyptian Medical Papyrus of the

Fourteenth Century B.C.E. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, n. 51, p. 191–200, 1992.

WEINFELD, M. The Significance of the Political ‘Brotherhood Covenant’ in Israel and

in the Ancient Near East. In: TALSHIR, Z.; YONA, S.; SIVAN, D. (eds) Homage to

Shmuel: Studies in the World of the Bible. Jerusalem: Bialik Institute/Ben Gurion

University Press, 2001. p. 178-183 [Hebrew].

WESTERMANN, C. Basic Forms of Prophetic Speech. Louisville: Westminster/John

Knox, 1991.

YASSINE, K.; TEIXIDOR, J. Ammonite and Aramaic Inscriptions from Tell el-Mazār in

Jordan. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR), Chicago, v.

, p. 45-50, 1986.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7213/2175-1838.12.002.DS02

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.




Direitos autorais 2020 Editora Universitária Champagnat

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.