Work motivation among millennial employees with different life goals: Case of Serbian companies

Ivana Kovačević, Jelena Anđelković Labrović

Abstract


Millennials constitute the majority of today’s workforce in global market as well as in Serbia. One of the main challenges of contemporary Human resource management is how to create environment where their abilities can be empowered and their potentials used. In that sense the purpose of this paper is to depict the motivational goals among Serbian millennials, to understand what motivates them, what are their most important needs that have to be satisfied in work environment. We questioned 363 employees from five different companies in Serbia using three questionnaires adapted according to the self-determination theory, considering goal orientations, level of motivation and need satisfaction in the working environment. It is shown that Serbian millennials are relatively similar to their peers in other countries. They mostly strive toward intrinsic goals, but include monetary aspect as well. Their type of motivation gravitate toward more autonomous extrinsic motivation, respectively toward motivation through identification. Regarding their need satisfaction, they are more satisfied with affiliative needs and needs for competency and least satisfied with existential needs. Also, results show that the main differences were not always defined by the opposition between intrinsic and extrinsic goals but rather, by the contrast formed between those who, almost unselectively strive toward goals, and those who did not expressed strong orientation toward either of goals. It is emphasized that Serbian millennials are not quite integrated category regarding their motivating profile; they differ according to the factor of their goal orientation, but most important is the level of strength of their goal orientation.


Keywords


Work motivation. Millennials. Need satisfaction. Intrinsic/extrinsic goals.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Amabile, T. M., Hill, K. G., Hennessey, B. A., & Tighe, E. M. (1994). The Work Preference Inventory: Assessing Intrinisic and Extrinsic Motivational Orientations. Journal of Personali-ty and Social Psychology, 66 (5), 950-967.

Borges, N., Manuel, S., Elam, C., & Jones, B. (2010). Differences in motives between Millen-nial and Generation X medical students. Medical Education, 44, 570-576.

Deloitte. (2016). The 2016 Deloitte Millennial Survey: Winning over the next generation of leaders. Retrieved June 28, 2016 from: http://www2.deloitte.com/global/en/pages/about-deloitte/articles/millennialsurvey.html

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. (2008). Self-determination theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motiva-tion, Development, and Health. Canadian Psychology, 49 (3), 182-185.

Gagne, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-Determination Theory and Work Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-362.

Gagne, M., Forest, J., Gilbert, M.-H., Aube, C., Morin, E., & Malorni, A. (2010). The Motivation at Work Scale: Validation Evidence in Two-Languages. Educational and Psychological Meas-urement , 70 (4), 628-646.

Gagne, M., Forest, J., Vansteenkistee, M., Crevier-Braud, L., van den Broeck, A., Aspeli, A. K., et al. (2015). Validation evidence in seven languages and nine countries. European Journal of Work and Organizationl Psychology , 24 (2), 178-196.

Grouset, F. M., Ahuvia, A., Youngmee, K., Ryan, R. M., Schmuck, P., Kasser, T., et al. (2005). The Structure of Goal Contents Across 15 Cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psy-chology , 89 (5), 800-816.

Ivancević, S., & Ratković, T. (2016). Millennials in the workplace. XV International symposi-um Reshaping the Future Through Sustainable Business Development and Enteproureship SymOrg 2016 (pp. 733-737). Zlatibor: Faculty of organizational sciences.

Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examing the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 22, 280-287.

Kultalahti, S., & Viitala, R. L. (2014). Sufficient challenges and a weekend ahead – Generation Y describing motivation at work. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 27 (4), 569 - 582.

Kuvaas, B. (2009). A test of hypotheses derived from self-determination theory among pub-lic sector employess. Employee Relations , 31 (1), 39-56.

Lunsford, S. (2009). Survey Analysis: Employee Motivation by Generation Factors. Retrieved June 16, 2016 from: http://achieveglobal.co.uk/assets/resources/leadership/ra-motivation-by-generation-factors.pdf

Majstorović, N. (2008). Primena teorije self-determinacije u istraživanjima radne motivacije. Primenjena psihologija, 1 (1-2), 5-18.

Milinković, I., Kovačević, I., & Mihailović, D. (2017). What Do Freshmen Want? Career Path Preferences Among Students. Management: Journal Of Sustainable Business And Manage-ment Solutions In Emerging Economies, 22(1), 37-45.

Marescaux, E., De Winne, S., & Sels, L. (2013). HR practices and HRM outcomes: The role of basic need satisfaction. Personnel Review , 42 (1), 4-27.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review , 5 (4), 370-396.

McClleland, D. C. (1985). How Motives, Skills, and Values Determine What People Do. Amer-ican Psychologist , 40 (7), 812-825.

Ng, E. S., Schweitzer, L., & Lyons, S. T. (2010). New Generation, Great Expectations: A Field Study of the Millennial Generation. Journal of Business and Psychology,25, 281-292.

Pew Research Center. (2015). Labor Force Composition by Generation. Retrieved June 29, 2016, from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/05/11/millennials-surpass-gen-xers-as-the-largest-generation-in-u-s-labor-force/ft_15-05-04_genlaborforcecompositionstacked-2/

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-Determination Theory and te Facititation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being. American Psychologist , 55 (1), 68-78.

Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Kasser, T. (2004). The independent effects of goal contents and motives on well-being: it`s both what you pursue and why you pursue it. Per-sonality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 30 (1), 475-486.

Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia. (2016). Statistical pocketbook of serbia 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016, from: http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/repository/documents/00/02/07/26/Statisticki_kalendar_2016.pdf

The Council of Economic Advisers. (2014). 15 Economic Facts About Millennials. Retrieved June 12, 2016 from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/millennials_report.pdf

Thompson, C., & Gregory, J. B. (2012). Managing Millennials: A Framework for Improving Attraction, Motivation, and Retention. The Psychologist-Manager Journal,15, 237–246.

Tremblay, M. A., Blanchard, C. M., Taylor, S., Pelletier, L. G., & Villeneuve, M. (2009). Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale: Its Value for Organizational Psychology Research. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science , 41 (4), 213-226.

Tolbize, A. (2008). Generational differences in the workplace. Retrieved June 16, 2016 from: http://rtc.umn.edu/docs/2_18_Gen_diff_workplace.pdf

Twenge, J. M ., Campbell, S., M., Hoffman,B., J., Lance, C., E. (2010) Generational differences in work values: A review of the empirical evidence. Journal of Management.

Vallerand, R. J. (2000). Deci and Ryan`s Self-Determination Theory: A View From the Hierar-chical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Psychological Inquiry , 11 (4), 312-318.

Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., DE Witte, H., Soenens, B., & Lens, W. (2010). Capturing autonomy, competence, and relatedness at work: Construction and initial validation of the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psy-chology , 83, 981-1002.

Vansteenkiste, M., Neyrinnck, B. N., Soenens, B., De Witte, H., & Van den Broek, A. (2007). On the Relations among Work Value Orientations, Psychological Need Satisfaction and Job Out-comes: A Self-Determination Theory Approach. Journal of Occupational Psychology , 80, 251-277.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7213/rebrae.11.001.AO01

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.7213/rebrae.v11i1.23369.g22513

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.