Time influence of mechanical ventilation on functional independence in patients submitted to cardiac surgery: literature review

André Luiz Cordeiro, Thiago Araújo de Melo, Andriele Medeiros Santos, Gisele Freitas Lopes

Resumo


Introduction: Patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery present motor and respiratory complications mainly due to high surgery manipulation and the use of mechanical ventilation. Reducing the weaning start time and disconnecting patient’s ventilation system prematurely can decrease the pulmonary complications and hospitalization time. Motor complications are the most relevant as they have a direct effect on functional independence provoked by immobility time. Objectives: Identify if mechanical ventilation time has an impact on functional capacity on patients submitted to cardiac surgery in order to contribute to the establishment of reliable evidence to practice through this patient’s profile. Materials and methods: Original articles were analyzed, published between 2000 and 2014, which focused on the influence of mechanical ventilation time concerning the functional independence on patients submitted to cardiac surgery, contained in the following electronic database: Scielo, BIREME (LILACS), PubMed e CAPES. Results: It was observed that the length of stay in the intensive care unit in cardiac surgery was influenced directly by CPB, VM and pulmonary dysfunction. Functional independence was compromised in patients with longer duration of mechanical ventilation, postoperative pain and prolonged bed rest. It was also found that there is no consensus on the protocol for improved functional capacity. Conclusion: There is a functional decline in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, especially those at increased length of stay in mechanical ventilation, reflecting a direct and negative impact on their functional independence and quality of life.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-5150.028.004.AR04

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