Violence in Public Transport: An Analysis of Resilience and Vulnerability in the City of Rio de Janeiro

Marcus Hugo Sant'Anna Cardoso, Tálita Floriano Santos, Marcelino Aurélio Vieira da Silva

Resumo


Indicators of violence involving public transportation have reached alarming levels in most Brazilian states, hampering mobility. This article aims to identify the level of vulnerability and resilience of public transportation in 21 administrative regions of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in light of criminal occurrences. Variables related to population, employment, intervening opportunities, travel time, criminal occurrences associated with public transportation and police coverage of each evaluated region were used. The results indicated that the five most vulnerable regions are Campo Grande, Méier, Barra da Tijuca, Rio Comprido and Irajá, and the most resilient are Lagoa, Copacabana, Botafogo, Vila Isabel and Tijuca. The contribution of this work is the proposal to analyze the level of vulnerability and resilience based on public security data, with emphasis on the spatial dependence relation among the regions.


Palavras-chave


Public Transportation. Vulnerability. Resilience. Criminal Occurrences.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


Ajayi, A. P., & Ajayi, D. D. (2013). Areal differentiation in crime in public transit terminals in Ibadan metropolis. Journal of Transporation Security, 6(1), 1–12. doi:10.1007/s12198-012-0099-2.

Berdica, K. (2002). An introduction to road vulnerability: What has been done, is done and should be done. Transport Policy, 9(2), 117–127. doi:10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00011-2.

Boschetti, F., Gaffier, C., Moglia, M., Walke, I., & Price, J. (2017). Citizens’ perception of the resilience of Austral-ian cities. Sustainability Science, 12(3), 345–364. doi:10.1007/s11625-017-0429-1.

Carr, K., & Spring, G. (1993). Public Transport Safety: A Community Right and a communal Responsibility. Crime Prevention Studies, 147-155

Carvalho, I. S. De, & Risso, M. Í. (2018). Segurança Pública para virara o Jogo. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.

Castro, D., Sousa, B. de, Souza, C., Ii, P., Santos, S., Ii, R., & Rita, A. (2017). Violência em transporte público Sousa DCB et al., 1–10. doi:10.11606/S1518-8787.2017051007085

CNI. (2018). Retratos da Sociedade Brasileira. Confederação Nacional da Indústria, 7(41), 1–14.

Cosenza, C., Sandres, G., Junior, P. S., & Siggete, E. (2016). CRFM: An application of the fuzzy logic in APELL programme. International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering, 6(1), 63–72. doi:10.2495/SAFE-V6-N1-63-72.

Cury, M. V. Q. (2007). Método para avaliar a percepção do usuário sobre a qualidade de ST sobre trilhos. Transportes, 15(1), 7–15.

de Souza, E. R., & de Lima, M. L. C. (2006). Panorama da violência urbana no Brasil e suas capitais. The pano-rama of urban violence in Brazil and its Capitals. Ciência de saúde coletiva, 11(supl), 1211–1222.

Faizi, S., Rashid, T., Sałabun, W., Zafar, S., Wątróbski, J. (2018). Decision Making with Uncertainty Using Hesitant Fuzzy Sets. International Journal of Fuzzy Systems, 20, 93–103.

Fajnzylber, P., & Araujo, A. de. (2001). Violência e criminalidade [Violence and criminality]. Minas Gerais: CEDEPLAR, 2001. Retrieved on March 8, 2020, from https://econpapers.repec.org/RePEc:cdp:texdis:td167

Brazilian Public Security Forum - FBSP. (2018). Public Safe is the solution. - 2018. São Paulo: FBSP. Retrieved on March 8, 2020, from forumseguranca.org.br/

Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 253–267. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.04.002.

Gaitanidou, E., Tsami, M., & Bekiaris, E. (2017). A review of resilience management application tools in the transport sector. Transportation Research Procedia, 24, 235–240. doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2017.05.113.

Hernández, D. (2012). Activos y estructuras de oportunidades de movilidad. Una propuesta analítica para el estudio de la accesibilidad por transporte público, el bienestar y la equidad. EURE, 38(115), 117–135.

Kim, H., & Song, Y. (2018). An integrated measure of accessibility and reliability of mass transit systems. Transportation, 45(4), 1075–1100. doi:10.1007/s11116-018-9866-7.

Kooi, B. (2015). Security Concerns at Hot-Spot Bus Stop Locations. Journal of Applied Security Research, 10(3), 277–307. doi:10.1080/19361610.2015.1038762.

Kruger, T., & Landman, K. (2007). Crime and Public transport: designing a safer journey. In Annals of the XXVI Annual Southern African Transport . South Africa: SATC.

Langridge, R., Christian-Smith, J., & Lohse, K. A. (2006). Access and resilience: Analyzing the construction of social resilience to the threat of water scarcity. Ecology and Society, 11(2). doi:10.5751/ES-01825-110218.

Marchese, D., Reynolds, E., Bates, M. E., Morgan, H., Clark, S. S., & Linkov, I. (2018). Resilience and sustainabil-ity: similarities and differences in environmental management applications. Science of the Total Environment, 613–614, 1275–1283. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv. 2017.09.086.

Moore, S. (2011). Understanding and managing anti-social behaviour on public transport through value change: The considerate travel campaign. Transport Policy, 18(1), 53–59. doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.05.008.

Moreira, R. do C., & Fochezatto, A. (2017). Análise espacial da criminalidade no estado da Bahia. Rde - Revista de Desenvolvimento Econômico, [s.l.], 1(39), 52-80.

Newton, A. D. (2004). Crime on Public Transport: ‘ Static ’ and ‘ Non-Static ’ ( Moving ) Crime Events. Western Criminology, 5(3), 25–42.

Newton, A. (2014). Crime on Public Transport. In: BRUINSMA, G.; WEISBURD, D. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Crim-inology and Criminal Justice. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2014. p. 709–720.

Proper, J. W., & Pienaar, W. J. (2011). Resilience as an imperative in public transport organisations. Corporate Ownership and Control, 8(4 D), 373–388. doi:10.22495/cocv8i4c3art6.

Reggiani, A., Nijkamp, P., & Lanzi, D. (2015). Transport resilience and vulnerability: The role of connectivity. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 81, 4–15. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2014.12.012.

Rolim, M. (2007). Caminhos para a inovação em segurança pública no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Segurança Pública, São Paulo, 1(1), 32-47.

Santos, T. F., Silva, M. A. V., Fernandes, V. A., & Mardsen, G. (2020). Resilience and Vulnerability of Public Transportation Fare System: the case of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sustainability, 12, 1-22. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020647

Sałabun, W., Palczewski, K., Wątróbski, J. (2019). Multicriteria Approach to Sustainable Transport Evaluation under Incomplete Knowledge: Electric Bikes Case Study. Sustainability, 11,1-19, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123314.

Sałabun, W. (2014). Reduction in the Number of Comparisons Required to Create Matrix of Expert Judgment in the Comet Method. Manag. Prod. Eng. Rev., 5, 62–69.

Spaans, M., & Waterhout, B. (2017). Building up resilience in cities worldwide – Rotterdam as participant in the 100 Resilient Cities Programme. Cities, 61, 109–116. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2016.05.011.

Vinodh, S., & Devadasan, S. R. (2011). Twenty criteria based agility assessment using fuzzy logic approach. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 54, 1219–1231.

Wang, C.-H., Chen, N., & Chan, S.-L. (2017). A gravity model integrating high-speed rail and seismic-hazard mitigation through land-use planning: Application to California development. Habitat International, 62, 51–61. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2017.02.009.

Xu, H., & Xue, B. (2017). Key indicators for the resilience of complex urban public spaces. Journal of Building Engineering, 12, 306–313. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2017.06.018.

Yager, R. R. (2000). Simultaneous solution of fuzzy models: An application to economic equilibrium analysis. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 115, 339–349. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0114(98)00117-1


Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.