Beyond the freedom to build: Long-term outcomes of Elemental’s incremental housing in Quinta Monroy

Sandra Carrasco, David O’Brien

Resumo


In 2003, the Chilean architecture firm Elemental began to revisit the idea of partially completed housing harnessing the productive capacities of the informal process within a more formal framework. The Quinta Monroy project in the northern Chilean city of Iquique was the first such project and involved the in-situ replacement of an informal settlement. The desire of residents was for a middle-class house that was beyond the scope of their budget or the subsidy. The Elemental project at Quinta Monroy comprised 93 expandable houses designed in parallel buildings and organized in four courtyards aiming to promote community interaction and maintain neighbors’ affinities. This paper investigates the process of housing adaptation through self-construction twelve years after the residents received their homes in 2005. The strategy to promote resident-driven expansions has been successful as 92 out of 93 households expanded their homes. The most significant concerns focused on the deterioration of living standards due to progressive and uncontrollable extensions which might have significant impacts on the settlement development. The findings from this paper focus on the neighbors’ negotiations for housing extensions and the risk of the re-creation of precarious living environments evidencing limitations for unassisted or spontaneous incremental schemes of housing development


Palavras-chave


Quinta Monroy, Elemental, incremental housing, Iquique, Chile.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


Aravena, A. (2010). Elemental-Interview. Perspecta, 42, 85-89. Retrieved on June 03, 2018 from

www.jstor.org/stable/41679225

Aravena, A. (2014). ¿Mi filosofia arquitectonica? Incluir a la comunidad en el proceso [My architectural philosophy?

Engaging the community in the process]. TED Global. Retrieved on June 03, 2018 from

https://www.ted.com/talks/alejandro_aravena_my_architectural_philosophy_bring_the_community_into_the_process?

language5es

Aravena, A., & Iacobelli, A. (2016). Elemental: manual de vivienda incremental y diseño participativo [Elemental:

incremental housing and participatory design manual]. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz.

Araya, M. (2005). La pionera de la Quinta Monroy [The pioneer of Quinta Monroy]. La Estrella de Iquique. Retrieved on

September 8, 2017 from

https://www.estrellaiquique.cl/prontus4_nots/site/artic/20051113/pags/20051113090809.html

Arellano, J. P. (1977). Elementos para una política de vivienda social. Revista EURE-Revista de Estudios Urbano

Regionales, 5(14). Retrieved on July 10, 2020 from http://eure.cl/index.php/eure/article/view/895/10

Arriagada, C., Sepúlveda Swatson, D., Cartier Rovirosa, E., & Gutiérrez Vera, C. (2004). Chile: Un siglo de políticas en

vivienda y barrio [Chile; A century of Housing and Neighbourhood Policies]. Retrieved on July 10, 2020 from:

http://biblio.uchile.cl/client/es_ES/sisib/search/detailnonmodal/ent:$002f$002fSD_ILS$002f0$002fSD_ILS:525102/

ada?qu=Arriagada+Luco%2C+Camilo.&ic=true

Carrasco, S., Ochiai, C., & Okazaki, K. (2016). Impacts of resident-initiated housing modifications in resettlement sites in

Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 17, 100-113.

D’Alençon, R., Justiniano, C., Márquez, F., & Valderrama, C. (2010). Parámetros y estándares de habitabilidad: calidad en

la vivienda, el entorno inmediato y el conjunto habitacional. En Camino al Bicentenario Propuestas para Chile.

Santiago, Chile: Gobierno de Chile, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Camara de Diputados Chile & Biblioteca del

Congreso Nacional de Chile. Retrieved on September 8, 2017 from https://politicaspublicas.uc.cl/wpcontent/uploads/2015/02/parametros-y-estandares-de-habitabilidad.pdf

Davis, M. (2006). Planet of slums. New York: Verso.

de Chile, T., & Verona, I. (2006). ELEMENTAL Program: Rethinking Low-Cost Housing in Chile. PRAXIS: Journal of

Writing + Building, (8), 52-57. Retrieved on April 15, 2019 from www.jstor.org/stable/24328975

Ducci, M. E. (1997). Chile: el lado obscuro de una política de vivienda exitosa. EURE - Revista Latinoamericana de

Estudios Urbano Regionales, 23(69). Retrieved on April 15, 2019 from

http://www.eure.cl/index.php/eure/article/view/1164

Elemental. (n.d.). Elemental, four Incremental Housing Projects. Retrieved on February 5, 2018 from

http://www.elementalchile.cl/en/

Elemental (2005). Quinta Monroy / ELEMENTAL, ArchDaily. Retrieved on August 15, 2017 from

https://www.archdaily.com/10775/quinta-monroy-elemental?ad_medium=gallery

Gilbert, A. (2017). ¿Una casa es para siempre? Movilidad residencial y propiedad de la vivienda en los asentamientos

autoproducidos. Territorios, (6), 51-73.

Goethert, R. (2010). Incremental housing. Monday developments, 9, 23-25.

Iacobelli, A., & Aravena, A. (2008). Elemental: Housing As an Investment Not a Social Expense. In Ruby, I., & Ruby, A.

(Eds.), Urban transformation (p. 244 - 357). Berlin: Ruby Press.

La Estrella de Iquique. (2003, 1 October 2003). "Fumones" intentaron quemar la Quinta Monroy ["Addicts" tried set fire

the Quinta Monroy]. La Estrella de Iquique,. Retrieved on November 22, 2017 from

https://www.estrellaiquique.cl/site/edic/20031001001255/pags/20031001002406.html

Millones S., Y. (2017). La otra mitad de la Quinta Monroy [The Other Half of the Quinta Monroy]. Revista de

Arquitectura, 22(32), 67-72. https://doi.org/10.5354/0719-5427.2017.46147

MINVU. (2002). Ordenanza General de Urbanismo y Construcciones. D.S. 217 – D.O. 20.02.02. . Santiago, Chile: Ministerio

de Vivienda y Urbanismo [Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning]. Retrieved on August 15, 2017 from

https://www.bcn.cl/leychile/navegar?idNorma=194720

MINVU. (2004). El Déficit Habitacional en Chile: medición de los requerimientos de vivienda y su distribución espacial.

Serie VII: Política Habitacional y Planificación. Santiago, Chile: Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo [Ministry of

Housing and Urban Planning]. Retrieved on August 15, 2017 from https://catalogo.minvu.cl/cgi-bin/koha/opacretrieve-file.pl?id=07512a141cbbcabff234ace8201cf26b

MINVU, Municipio de Constitución, & Arauco. (2010). Plan de Reconstrucción Sustentable PRES Constitución [Plan for

the Sustainable Reconstruction of Constitucion]. Santiago: Chile. Retrieved on February 02, 2013 from

http://minvuhistorico.minvu.cl/incjs/download.aspx?glb_cod_nodo=20100910140027&hdd_nom_archivo=Plan_Maes

tro_PRES_ConstituciónB3n_Agosto_2010.pdf

Mora, R., Greene, M., Gaspar, R., & Moran, P. (2020). Exploring the mutual adaptive process of home-making and

incremental upgrades in the context of Chile’s Progressive Housing Programme (1994–2016). Journal of Housing and

the Built Environment, 35(1), 243-264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10901-019-09677-9

Muñoz, C. (2007). Vivienda Progresiva, un programa del sector público que se potenció en el hábitat rural chileno.

Revista INVI, 22(59). Retrieved on May 10, 2018 from

http://revistainvi.uchile.cl/index.php/INVI/article/view/293/922

Negro, V. (2016). Arquitectura Participativa en America Latina [Participatory architecture in Latin America]. Casa del

Tiempo, 3(32). Retrieved on July 02, 2019 from

http://www.uam.mx/difusion/casadeltiempo/32_sep_2016/casa_del_tiempo_eV_num_32_42_45.pdf

Palma, C. (2009). Quinta Monroy / ELEMENTAL, ArchDaily. Retrieved on August 15, 2017 from

https://www.archdaily.com/10775/quinta-monroy-elemental?ad_medium=gallery

Porio, E., Crisol, C. S., Magno, N. F., Cid, D., & Paul, E. N. (2004). The Community Mortgage Programme: An innovative

social housing programme in the Philippines and its outcomes. In Mitlin, D., & Satterhwaite, D. (Eds.), Empowering

squatter citizen: Local government, civil society, and urban poverty reduction (p. 54). London: Earthscan.

Rodríguez, A., & Sugranyes, A. (2005). Los con techo. Un desafío para la política de vivienda social Santiago de Chile

[Those with a roof: A challenge for social-housing policy]. Santiago,, Chile: Ediciones SUR.

Seabrook, J. (1996). In the cities of the south: Scenes from a developing world. London: Verso.

Sepúlveda, R., Muñoz, P., Puente, P. d. l., & Torres, E. (1994). Incidencia de factores sociofísicos sobre el desarrollo

progresivo en conjuntos de lotes con servicio. Boletín INVI, 9(21), 17-53. Retrieved on November 10, 2019 from

http://repositorio.uchile.cl/handle/2250/118173

Sreejesh, S., & Mohapatra, S. (2013). Mixed method research design: an application in consumer-brand relationships

(CBR): Springer Science & Business Media, Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-

-9

Tipple, A. G., & Ameen, M. S. (1999). User initiated extensionc activity in Bangladesh: building slums or area

improvement? Environment and Urbanization, 11(1), 165-184.

Turner, J. F., & Fichter, R. (1972). Freedom to build: dweller control of the housing process: Macmillan.

UN-Desa. (2014). World urbanization prospects: The 2014 revision, highlights. United Nations, Department of Economic

and Social Affairs (UN-DESA), Population Division. United Nations publication. New York. Retrieved on July 10, 2017

from https://esa. un. org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf

UN-Habitat. (2001). The State of the World's Cities Report 2001 (Vol. 17). United Nations Human Settlements

Programme, UN-Habitat Nairobi, Kenya.

UN-Habitat. (2011). Affordable land and housing in Latin America and The Caribbean. United Nations Human

Settlements Programme, UN-Habitat, Adequate Housing Series (Vol. 1). Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved on 20 April 2019

from https://unhabitat.org/affordable-land-and-housing-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-2

UN-Habitat. (2016). New Urban agenda. Quito declaration on sustainable cities and human settlements for all. United

Nations Human Settlements Programme, UN-Habitat Quito, Ecuador. Retrieved on 10 February 2019 from

https://habitat3.org/wp-content/uploads/NUA-English.pdf

UN-Habitat, UNSD, & Cities Alliance. (2002). Expert Group Meeting on Urban Indicators: Secure Tenure, Slums and Global

Sample of Cities. United Nations Human Settlements Programme, UN-Habitat, United Nations Statistics Division & Cities

Alliance. Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved on February 15, 2018 from

https://www.citiesalliance.org/sites/default/files/expert-group-meeting-urban-indicators%5B1%5D.pdf

Vallejos, P. (2012). Incendio afectó al sector de la ex Quinta Monroy en Iquique [Fire affected the former Quinta

Monroy]. La Estrella de Iquique,. Retrieved on March 10, 2018 from

http://www.soychile.cl/Iquique/Sociedad/2012/02/19/72811/Incendio-afecto-al-sector-de-la-ex-Quinta-Monroyen-Iquique.aspx

Vergara, L. M., Gruis, V., & van der Flier, K. (2019). Understanding housing management by low-income homeowners:

Technical, organisational and sociocultural challenges in Chilean condominium housing. Buildings, 9(3), 65.

https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings9030065

Vergara Perucich, F., & Boano, C. (2016). Bajo escasez ¿Media casa basta? Reflexiones sobre el Pritzker de Alejandro

Aravena {In scarcity Is half-the-house enough? Reflections on the Alejandro Aravena's Pritzker}. Revista de

Arquitectura, 21(31), 37-46. https://doi.org/10.5354/0719-5427.2016.42516

WHO. (2010). International Workshop on Housing, Health and Climate Change: Developing guidance for health

protection in the built environment mitigation and adaptation responses. In Meeting Report, Geneva, October (p. 13-

: World Health Organization.

World Bank. (2014). Population living in slums (% of urban population) - Latin America & Caribbean. Retrieved on 10

November 2019 from

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.POP.SLUM.UR.ZS?end=2014&locations=ZJ&start=1990&view=chart


Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.