CO2 emissions and mitigation policies for urban road transportation: Sao Paulo versus Shanghai

Evaldo Costa, Julia Seixas, Patrícia Baptista, Gustavo Costa, Thomas Turrentine

Resumo


This paper compares the energy consumption, CO2 emissions and public policies of two mega-cities, Sao Paulo (SP) and Shanghai (SH), in order to identify their GHG emissions mitigation policies. Both cities have experienced rapid growth of the automotive sectors resulting in sizable pollution and CO2 emission challenges. SP has successfully implemented the ethanol and encouraged the growth of the fleet of light-duty vehicles. SH has coal-based power generation and restricted the ownership of the vehicles in an attempt to reduce GHG emissions, invested in public transportation and electric mobility. Tabular analysis of secondary data was adopted in this study, revealing also that SP has considerably expanded individual transportation. Despite investments in ethanol, the city could not contain the increase in CO2 emissions from road transportation. SH invested in public transportation and inhibited individual transportation, but also failed to contain CO2 emissions. Mitigation policies and measures taken were not sufficient to prevent growth of CO2 emissions in both cities. To reduce CO2 emissions in transportation, SP and SH should focus on public policies to encourage public and clean transportation and limit the burning of fossil fuels.


Palavras-chave


Sao Paulo, Shanghai, Energy, CO2 emission, Urban Road Transportation

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


Agency-IEA, I. E. (2015). Hybrid and Electric Vehicles: The Electric Drive Plug In. Retrieved from http://www.ieahev.org/assets/1/7/Report2015_WEB.pdf

Ambiente, M. d. M. (2015). Programa De Controle De Poluição Do Ar Por Veículos Automotores-Proconve. Programa De Controle Da Poluição Do Ar Por Motociclos E Veículos Similares-Promot. Retrieved from http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/163/_arquivos/promot_163.pdf

Ambiente., P. d. S. P.-S. d. V. e. D. M. (2015). Inventário de emissões e remoções antrópicas de gases de efeito estufa do Município de São Paulo de 2003 a 2009, com atualização para 2010 e 2011 nos setores Energia e Resíduos. Retrieved 03/08/2015, from Associação Nacional de Transportes públicos http://issuu.com/svmasp/docs/sum__rio_executivo_invent__rio_gee_

Bank, T. W. (2015). GDP growth. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG

Bhalla, K., Shotten, M., Cohen, A., Brauer, M., Shahraz, S., Burnett, R., . . . Murray, C. (2014). Transport for health: the global burden of disease from motorized road transport.

Book-Yearbook, C. M. S. (2012). China Economic Monitoring & Analysis Center National Bureau of Statistic.

Cavalcanti, G. d. A. (1992). A dinâmica do PROÁLCOOL: Acumulação e crise 1975-1989. Revista Brasileira de Energia, 2 N.1.

Chan, C. K., & Yao, X. (2008). Air pollution in mega cities in China. Atmospheric Environment, 42(1), 1-42. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.09.003

China, T. C. P. s. G. O. T. P. s. R. (2015). State Council on the issuance of energy-saving and new energy automotive industry development plan (2012-2020) of the notice. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2012-07/09/content_2179032.htm

China, T. N. D. a. R. C. (2014). China's Policies and Actions on Climate Change Retrieved from http://en.ccchina.gov.cn/archiver/ccchinaen/UpFile/Files/Default/20141126133727751798.pdf

Corps, S. P. S. B. T. P. (2015a). Shanghai comprehensive transportation sportation Annual Report 2003-07. Retrieved from http://wenku.baidu.com/view/7bded93c2af90242a895e5e7.htm

Corps, S. P. S. B. T. P. (2015b). Shanghai comprehensive transportation sportation Annual Report 2009-10. Retrieved from http://wenku.baidu.com/view/2b160f8384868762caaed57f.html

Costa, E., & Seixas, J. (2014). Contribution of Electric Cars to the Mitigation of CO2 Emissions in the City of Sao Paulo. Paper presented at the Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), October 2014, IEEE., Coimbra, Portugal.

Denatran, D. N. d. T.-. (2015). Anuário frota de veículos automotores. Retrieved from http://www.denatran.gov.br/frota.htm

DENATRAN, D. N. d. T.-. (2015). Frota de Veículos. http://www.denatran.gov.br/frota2013.htm

Emissions, C. H.-d. (2015). Conventional pollutant emission limits. Retrieved from http://transportpolicy.net/index.php?title=China:_Heavy-duty:_Emissions

Estatística-IBGE, I. B. d. G. e. (2015a). Produto Interno Bruto dos Municípios. Retrieved from http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/pesquisas/pesquisa_resultados.php?id_pesquisa=46.

Estatística-IBGE, I. B. d. G. e. (2015b). Sinopse do Censo Demográfico 2010. Retrieved from http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2010/sinopse/sinopse_tab_rm_zip.shtm

Evangelina da M. P. A. de Araujo Vormittag, a. a. (2013). Avaliação do impacto da poluição atmosférica no Estado de São Paulo sob a visão da saúde. Retrieved from http://www.saudeesustentabilidade.org.br/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Documentofinaldapesquisapadrao_2409-FINAL-sitev1.pdf

FENG, S., & LI, Q. (2013). Car Ownership Control in Chinese Mega Cities: Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou. Journeys,(September), 40-49.

FERREIRA, E. R., & RUAS, D. (2000). As políticas da agroindústria canavieira e o Proálcool no Brasil: Marília (SP): UNESP-Marília Publicações.

Gibbs, D., Rigot-Muller, P., Mangan, J., & Lalwani, C. (2014). The role of sea ports in end-to-end maritime transport chain emissions. Energy Policy, 64, 337-348.

GORDON, D., & SPERLING, D. (2009). Surviving Two Billion Cars: China Must Lead the Way. Yale Environment360.

Governo do Estado de São Paulo: Secretaria do Meio Ambiente. Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo, C. (2014). Emissões Veícularesno Estado de São Paulo Retrieved from http://veicular.cetesb.sp.gov.br/relatorios-e-publicacoes

Group, T. W. B. (2014). Transport for Health: The Global Burden of Disease from Motorized Road Transport. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/17613/863040IHME0T4H0ORLD0BANK0compressed.pdf?sequence=1.

Håkansson, C., & Finnveden, G. (2015). Indirect Rebound and Reverse Rebound Effects in the ICT-sector and Emissions of CO2. Paper presented at the Joint Conference on 29th International Conference on Informatics for Environmental Protection/3rd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (EnviroInfo and ICT4S).

Hannisdahl, O. H., Malvik, H. V., & Guro, B. (2013). The future is electric! The EV revolution in Norway—Explanations and lessons learned. Paper presented at the Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), 2013 World.

Harris, H. (2001). Content analysis of secondary data: A study of courage in managerial decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 34(3), 191-208.

Holtsmark, B., & Skonhoft, A. (2014). The Norwegian support and subsidy policy of electric cars. Should it be adopted by other countries? Environmental science & policy, 42, 160-168.

Huo, H., He, K., Wang, M., & Yao, Z. (2012). Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles. Energy Policy, 43, 30-36.

Huo, H., Zhang, Q., He, K., Yao, Z., Wang, X., Zheng, B., . . . Ding, Y. (2011). Modeling vehicle emissions in different types of Chinese cities: importance of vehicle fleet and local features. Environmental Pollution, 159(10), 2954-2960.

IEA, I. E. A.-. (2008). World Energy Outlook. Retrieved from Paris:

Lohry, G., Yiu, A., & Lu, Y. (2014). China’s Emission Standard Policy and Its Unprecedented Car-Scrapping Program.

Macedo, F. C. d., & Angelis, Â. d. (2013). Guerra fiscal dos portos e desenvolvimento regional no Brasil. Redes, 18(1), 185-212.

Ministério do Planejamento, O. e. G. (2010). Produto Interno Bruto dos Municípios. 2010. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística-IBGE. 105. Retrieved from http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv62930.pdf

NEWGEOGRAPHY. (2015). CHINA: URBANIZING AND MOVING EAST: 2010 CENSUS. Retrieved from http://www.newgeography.com/content/002218-china-urbanizing-and-moving-east-2010-census

Paulo, C. M. d. S. (2014). LEI Nº 15.997-política municipal de incentivo ao uso de carros elétricos ou movidos a hidrogênio. Secretaria de Documentação Equipe de Documentação do Legislativo. Retrieved from http://camaramunicipalsp.qaplaweb.com.br/iah/fulltext/leis/L15997.pdf

Paulo, P. d. S. (2015a). LEI N. 12.490 - DE 3 DE OUTUBRO DE 1997. Retrieved from http://www3.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/cadlem/secretarias/negocios_juridicos/cadlem/integra.asp?alt=04101997L 124900000

Paulo, P. d. S. (2015b). Secretaria do Verde e do Meio Ambiente-SVMA. Retrieved from http://www.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/cidade/secretarias/meio_ambiente/organizacao/index.php?p=3246

Paulo, S. d. E. d. E. d. S. (2014). Balanço Enegético do Estado de São Paulo Retrieved from http://www.energia.sp.gov.br/a2sitebox/arquivos/documentos/724.pdf

Paulo-Detran, D. E. d. T. d. S. (2015). Estatísticas de Trânsito. Retrieved from http://www.detran.sp.gov.br/wps/portal/portaldetran/detran/estatisticastransito

Sierzchula, W., Bakker, S., Maat, K., & van Wee, B. (2014). The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption. Energy Policy, 68, 183-194.

Song, M., Wu, N., & Wu, K. (2014). Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency of the Transportation Sector in Shanghai. Sustainability, 6(2), 702-717.

Sperling, D., & Gordon, D. (2010). Two billion cars : driving toward sustainability. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Torres, H. d. G. (2012). Afinal, a desconcentração produtiva é ou não relevante? A cidade de São Paulo no olho do furacão. Novos Estudos-CEBRAP(94), 69-88.

Treanton, K. (2006). Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-IPCC. Cap.6, 5-6.

UNEP, U. N. E. P. (2015). Cities and Climate Change. Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/resourceefficiency/Policy/ResourceEfficientCities/FocusAreas/CitiesandClimateChange/tabid/101665/Default.aspx

Vergis, S., Turrentine, T. S., Fulton, L., & Fulton, E. (2014). Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Seven Markets. Retrieved from

Wang, H., Fu, L., Zhou, Y., Du, X., & Ge, W. (2010). Trends in vehicular emissions in China's mega cities from 1995 to 2005. Environmental Pollution, 158(2), 394-400.

Yang, C.-J. (2010). Launching strategy for electric vehicles: Lessons from China and Taiwan. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 77(5), 831-834.

Yearbook, C. S. (2011). China Monthly Statistic book. China: National Bureau of Statistics of China.

Zamboni, A., Tsai, D. S., Pires, E. C., & Cremer, M. d. S. (2015). Análise Preliminar Sobre A Implantação Do Padrão Euro VI No Brasil. Retrieved from http://www.energiaeambiente.org.br


Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.