American cities, global networks: mapping the multiple geographies of globalization in the Americas

Noah Toly, Sofie Bouteligier, Graham Smith, Ben Gibson


The mapping of advanced producer and financial service firms across global cities began to increase understandingof the role of cities in global governance, the presence and influence of cities in the shifting architectureof global political economy, and the role of globalization in shaping the landscape of local and regionalgovernance. The literature that emerged from such studies has also emphasized 1) increasing levelsof inequality in global cities and 2) attendant contests over local outcomes of globalization while seekingother ways of measuring and articulating the emergence of globalizing cities. Analyzing location strategiesin other sectors can speak to these issues. This paper extends methodology common to the global citiesliterature to map non-governmental organization (NGO) and energy corporation offices in the Americas, focusingon the convergence and divergence of these networks with those of advanced producer and financialservices firms. Mapping all three sectors might reveal multiple geographies of globalization in the Americas.Because globalizing cities have become the centers of integrated world capital, radical poverty, and environmentalinjustice, studies of poverty in the Americas must take seriously the urban centers that increasinglyhave become the hub of economic and ideological flows. The urban location strategies of advanced producerand financial services, global NGOs, and global energy corporations must be understood in order to grapplemore fully with issues of inequality in American cities.


Globalization; Cities; Governance; The Americas

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