Developing a Conceptual Model for the Relationship between Rituals and the City Based on the Theory of Sense of Place: The Case of the Historical Texture of Gorgan, Iran

Masoumeh Livani, Hamidreza Saremi, Mojtaba Rafeian


The aim of this study is to investigate how the city is influenced by the ritual of Muharram. The main research question is: what is the relationship between the city and the ritual of Muharram? To answer this question, we examined different intangible layers of this ritual heritage. This study is based on the three components of the sense of place. The research method is qualitative and a context-oriented approach is adopted. The context of the study is the historical texture of the city of Gorgan, Iran. The data were collected through library research and immediate observation. Next, content analysis and data coding were used to obtain a set of thematic categories. The results suggest that, as a kind of ritual-social behavior, the ritual of Muharram has had remarkable, enduring effects on the city over centuries. The non-urban-development dimension has thus allowed for the formation of sense of place in the relationship between people and the urban environment through a different process.

Developing a Conceptual Model for the Relationship between Rituals and the City Based on the Theory of Sense of Place: The Case of the Historical Texture of Gorgan, Iran


Muharram ritual, sense of place, the historical texture of Gorgan, tangible heritage, intangible heritage

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