Retailers and carriers’ viewpoint on Sorocaba’s city logistics: a spatial analysis


  • Thales Stevan Guedes Furquim Departament of Production Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos – CCGT, Rod. João Leme dos Santos, km 110, Itinga, 18052-780, Sorocaba, SP
  • Renata Lúcia Magalhães de Oliveira Departament of Transportation Engineering, Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais, Campus I, Sala 101, Av. Amazonas, 5253, Nova Suíça, BH, Minas Gerais
  • José Geraldo Vidal Vieira Federal University of São Carlos – UFSCar, Department of Production Engineering - CCGT – 1127, Rod.João Leme dos Santos (SP-264), Km 110. Itinga, 18052-780, Sorocaba-SP


Spatial analysis, urban freight, local constraints, logistical challenges


The spatial differentiation of the main constraints and challenges on urban freight transportation can support more assertive public policies and measures, subsidizing city logistics solutions. This paper presents the use of spatial analysis to characterize retailers and carriers’ perceptions on the most important constraints and challenges faced during the urban freight delivery in the central area of Sorocaba/SP. To identify possible clustered patterns concerning problems and solutions from the stakeholders’ viewpoint, the data were analyzed through two spatial techniques: Average Nearest Neighbors and Getis Gi Ord* Hot Spots analysis. These two methodological approaches provide a spatial concentration analysis. As a result, we determined the spatial patterns of stakeholders’ perception for the two groups of variables assessed: (i) the Northwestern portion of Sorocaba’s central area is not prepared to receive the demands of vehicles, and the stakeholders present restrictions related to off-peak deliveries; (ii) the Northeastern region has the greatest negative perception regarding the assessed attributes, and shows little evidence that the loading and unloading space is not appropriate.


Não há dados estatísticos.


Almeida, E. (2012). Econometria espacial aplicada. Campinas: Alínea.

Allen, J., Anderson, S., Browne, M., & Jones, P. (2000). A framework for considering policies to encourage sustainable urban freight traffic and goods/service flows: summary report. Westminster: University of Westminster. Research project: Sustainable Cities Programme.

Allen, J., Piecyk, M., Piotrowska, M., McLeod, F., Cherrett, T., Ghali, K., Nguyen, T., Bektas, T., Bates, O., Friday, A., Wise, S., & Austwick, M. (2018). Understanding the impact of e-commerce on last-mile light goods vehicle activity in urban areas: the case of London. Transportation Research Part D, Transport and Environment, 61, 325-338.

Barczak, R., & Duarte, F. (2012). Impactos ambientais da mobilidade urbana: cinco categorias de medidas mitigadoras. urbe. Revista Brasileira de Gestão Urbana, 4(1), 13-32.

Behrends, S., Lindholm, M., & Woxenius, J. (2008). The impact of urban freight transport: a definition of sustainability from an actor’s perspective. Transportation Planning and Technology, 31(6), 693-713.

Betanzo-Quezada, E., Romero-Navarrete, J., & Obregón-Biosca, S. (2015). Researches on urban freight transport in the Mexican city of Queretaro: from central to peri-urban areas. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering, 9(1), 12-21.

Bjørgen, A., Seter, H., Kristensen, T., & Pitera, K. (2019). The potential for coordinated logistics planning at the local level: a Norwegian in-depth study of public and private stakeholders. Journal of Transport Geography, 76, 34-41.

Bontempo, A. P., Cunha, C. B., Botter, D. A., & Yoshizaki, H. (2014). Evaluating restrictions on the circulation of freight vehicles in brazilian cities. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 125, 275-283.

Cárdenas, I., Beckers, J., & Vanelslander, T. (2017). E-commerce last-mile in Belgium: developing an external cost delivery index’. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 24, 123-129.

Carvalho, N. L. A., Ribeiro, P. C. C., Oliveira, L. K., Silva, J. E. A. R., & Vieira, J. G. V. (2019). Criteria to implement UDCs in historical cities: a Brazilian case study. European Transport, 72(1), 1-29.

Castillo, V. E., Bell, J. E., Rose, W. J., & Rodrigues, A. M. (2018). Crowdsourcing last mile delivery: strategic implications and future research directions. Journal of Business Logistics, 39(1), 7-25.

Cidell, J. (2010). Concentration and decentralization: the new geography of freight distribution in US metropolitan areas. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(3), 363-371.

C-Liege. (2013). Clean last mile transport and logistics management for smart and efficient local governments in Europe. Retrieved in 2019, September 10, from

Colicchia, C., Marchet, G., Melacini, M., & Perotti, S. (2013). Building environmental sustainability: empirical evidence from Logistics Service Providers. Journal of Cleaner Production, 59, 197-209.

Cherrett, T., Allen, J., McLeod, F., Maynard, S., Hickford, A., & Browne, M. (2012). Understanding urban freight activity: key issues for freight planning. Journal of Transport Geography, 24, 22-32.

Dablanc, L. (2009). Urban freight: freight transport: a key for the new urban economy. Washington: The Transport Research Support Program.

Deutsch, Y., & Golany, B. (2018). A parcel locker network as a solution to the logistics last mile problem. International Journal of Production Research, 56(1-2), 251-261.

European Commission. (2005). Thematic strategy on the urban environment. Brussels.

Ferrucci, F., & Bock, S. (2014). Real-time control of express pickup and delivery processes in a dynamic environment. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 63, 1-14.

Flora, M., Ewbank, H., & Vieira, J. G. V. (2019). Framework for urban freight transport analysis in medium-sized cities. urbe. Revista Brasileira de Gestão Urbana, 11, e20180203.

Furquim, T. S. G., Vieira, J. G. V., & Oliveira, R. M. (2018). Restrições de carga urbana e desafios logísticos: percepção de varejistas e motoristas em Sorocaba. Transportes, 26(1), 142-156.

Grass. (2016). Green and sustainable freight transport systems in cities. Retrieved in 2019, September 10, from

Holguín-Veras, J. (2008). Necessary conditions for off-hour deliveries and the effectiveness of urban freight road pricing and alternative financial policies in competitive markets. Transp. Research A, 42(2), 392-413.

Iwan, S., Kijewska, K., Johansen, B. G., Eidhammer, O., Małecki, K., Konicki, W., & Thompson, R. G. (2018). Analysis of the environmental impacts of unloading bays based on cellular automata simulation. Transportation Research Part D, Transport and Environment, 61, 104-117.

Lindholm, M. A. (2010). Sustainable perspective on urban freight transport: factors affecting local authorities in the planning procedures. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(3), 6205-6216.

Lindholm, M. A., & Browne, M. (2013). Local authority cooperation with urban freight stakeholders: a comparison of partnership approaches. European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, 13(1), 20-38.

Longley, P. A., Goodchild, M. F., Maguire, D. J., & Rhind, D. W. (2013). Sistemas e ciência da informação geográfica (Vol. 3). Porto Alegre: Bookman.

Lozano, A. (2006). Estudio integral metropolitano de transporte de carga y medio ambiente para el Valle de México. México: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Comision Ambiental Metropolitana. Final report.

Macário, R. (2007). Logurb: optimização de sistemas logísticos de distribuição de mercadorias em meio urbano: state of the art da logística urbana. Lisboa: Fundação de Ciência e Tecnologia.

Marcucci, E., & Gatta, V. (2017). Investigating the potential for off-hour deliveries in the city of Rome: Retailers’ perceptions and stated reactions. Transportation Research Part A, Policy and Practice, 102, 142-156.

Mitchell, A. (2005). The ESRI guide to GIS analysis (Vol. 2). Redlands: ESRI Press.

Novelog. (2018). New cooperative business models and guidance for sustainable city logistics. Retrieved in 2019, September 10, from

Oliveira, L. K. (2014). Diagnóstico das vagas de carga e descarga para a distribuição urbana de mercadorias: um estudo de caso em Belo Horizonte. Journal of Transport Literature, 8(1), 178-209.

Prata, B. A., Oliveira, L. K., Dutra, N. G. S., & Pereira, W. A., No. (2012). Logística urbana: fundamentos e aplicações. Curitiba: CRV.

Ranieri, L., Digiesi, S., Silvestri, B., & Roccotelli, M. (2018). A review of last mile logistics innovations in an externalities cost reduction vision. Sustainability, 10(3), 782.

Rodrigue, J. P., Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (2017). The geography of transport systems (4th ed.). London: Routledge.

Russo, F., & Comi, A. (2010). A classification of city logistics measures and connected impacts. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(3), 6355-6365.

Saltorato, P., Domingues, L. C., Donadone, J. C., & Guimarães, M. R. N. (2014). From stores to banks: the financialization of the retail trade in Brazil. Latin American Perspectives, 41(5), 110-128.

Sekovski, I., Newton, A., & Dennison, W. C. (2012). Megacities in the coastal zone: using a driver-pressure-stateimpact-response framework to address complex environmental problems. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 96(1), 48-59.

Serafini, S., Nigro, M., Gatta, V., & Marcucci, E. (2018). Sustainable crowdshipping using public transport: a case study evaluation in Rome. Transportation Research Procedia, 30, 101-110.

Taniguchi, E., Thompson, R. G., Yamada, T., & Van Duin, R. (2001). City logistics: network modelling and intelligent transport systems. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Taniguchi, E., Thompson, R. G., & Yamada, T. (1999). Modelling city logistics. In E. Taniguchi, & R. G. Thompson (Eds.), City logistics I. Kyoto: Institute for Systems Science Research.


Como Citar

Furquim, T. S. G., Oliveira, R. L. M. de, & Vieira, J. G. V. (2020). Retailers and carriers’ viewpoint on Sorocaba’s city logistics: a spatial analysis. Revista Brasileira De Gestão Urbana, 12. Recuperado de